Lately I am thinking that parenting is analogous to US Govt. system of traffic (a.k.a. DMV++ i.e DMV and more) I guess you will be shocked that any govt system can have positive effect. But I truly think that this system is very successful. In spite of tremendous overburdening, this system has managed to keep very low accident rates and absolutely low fatality rates.
Everything begins with education. System emphasizes that early driver study the rule book, understand the traffic conventions, learn the driving and pass "not so simple" tests.
Govt. provides a very nice infrastructure. Roads are wide and neatly marked. Boards properly explain the distances, destinations and directions. Lot of infrastructure is available online on phone, through GPS and through Maps describing where to go, ways of getting to that destination and pros and cons.
If someone wants to go for a trip or a hike or a tourist place, they can get the information and take their own decisions.
The roads have side guards to prevent any accidents. The lanes are defined . Cars have safety regulations and so on. Insurance rules are present.
But there are also rules, laws. The system enables the drivers to reach the destination but also prevents them from driving recklessly ensuring their safety. There are punishments, they are being watched and if they encounter accident they are helped as well.
Parenting should be similar. You emphasize on education/learning. Provide resources and information to enable the kid to take right decision. Provide infrastructure (finances, housing etc.) so that kid can pursue the goal which he or she has set. Ensure that there are certain rules and laws which keep the kids on track. And of course assurance of help in case there is actually any problem like insurance.
With "chinese style" govt will have to tow everybody's car to desired destination